Thymosin Beta-4

What is the Difference Between TB 500 and Thymosin Beta 4?

Essentially, there is no difference between the two molecules. They are identical in structure and function. That is, both are composed of 43 amino acids in like sequence and exert the same powerful effects on healing and recovery. The only difference between TB 500 and Thymosin Beta 4 is that the latter is produced by the thymus gland in the body, and the former is produced synthetically in the lab. Consequently, distinction is only absolutely necessary when distinguishing between the endogenous molecule vs. the synthetic peptide that has been administered exogenously. Therefore, we use both names interchangeably throughout this site unless making a specific distinction between that produced by the thymus and that produced through synthetic means, as all effects are identical.

Thymosin Beta 4 and the Thymus Gland

Thymosin is the hormone of the thymus gland. The thymus is located in the upper anterior chest region, between the lungs and behind the sternum. Weighing only around one ounce at peak development, the thymus has 2 lobes and is gray-pink in color. Interestingly, the thymus fully functions only until puberty. Then, it begins to shrink, and the gland begins to be replaced by fatty tissue. By old age, the thymus gland has essentially disappeared, with only fatty tissue in its place.

The thymus gland is critical in developing a healthy immune system in childhood. It stimulates the production of white blood cells into T cells and develops crucial defenses against autoimmunity (when the immune system attacks the body). TB4 is vital for the development and production of lymphocytes into T cells and is a crucial part of the immune and endocrine systems.

Although the thymus shrinks and naturally loses function around puberty, by this time it has produced all the body’s T cells. Additionally, various Thymosin proteins, including TB4, continue to circulate throughout the body, exerting numerous biological effects. Other significant proteins include Tβ10, Tβ15, and Tα1. However, TB4 has garnered the greatest clinical interest for its healing, protective, and regenerative potential.

Thymosin Beta 4 and Actin Regulation

Actin is the most abundant protein in most eukaryotic cells, comprising up to 10% of all proteins. It plays a crucial role in cells’ genetic compositions. Indeed, actin is an essential factor in many vital biological processes at the cellular level. These processes include muscle contraction, cell mobility, cell contraction during division, cell motility, cytokinesis, cell component movement, and signaling between cells. Additionally, actin facilitates and supports the creation of cell junctions and maintains cell shape. Indeed, actin forms an incredibly varied array of structures in the body and is central to many essential processes, not the least of which is the contraction of muscle tissue.

Importantly, actin (along with profilin) forms a ternary complex with Thymosin Beta 4, influencing its critical concentration. Actin upregulation then enhances actin-linked recuperative and protective benefits. Through up-regulating actin, TB-4 is able to stimulate stem cell migration and proliferation, creating new blood vessels as well as regulating inflammation. Indeed, studies have shown that actin encourages blood cell proliferation as well as the healing of damaged tissue. Recovery is further enhanced by the attraction of myocyte and myoblast cells to the locations of wounds, as these cells are critical to rapid injury recovery.

Improved Blood Vessel Growth Results with Thymosin Beta 4

Another mechanism key to stimulating faster recovery is angiogenesis, or the formation of new blood vessels. Thymosin Beta 4 has been shown in studies to greatly increase angiogenesis, promoting superior healing and growth. Indeed, in older individuals, angiogenesis is generally reduced, having a negative impact on wound healing. Conversely, younger individuals (among other things of course) display higher rates of angiogenesis around damaged tissue, rapidly increasing healing compared to their older counterparts. Additional research has revealed that this blood vessel formation is likely regulated through the Notch signaling pathway. The peptide activates this pathway, generating increased blood vessel formation around injured areas.

Further study reviews have shown TB 500 to increase collagen deposition and keratinocyte migration along with angiogenesis in wounded animals. The study noted a substantial improvement in healing of wounds in the group that received Tbeta4 versus control in as little as 7 days. Noting its multiple mechanisms of action, researchers concluded that Thymosin Beta 4 was a “potent wound healing factor” with clinical promise.

Healing Broken Bone Fractures With Thymosin Beta 4

Thymosin Beta 4 has been shown in studies to improve and speed up the healing of broken bones as well. In a study conducted on bone fractures in mice, those receiving TB4 administration had a 41% increase in peak force to failure and had bone calluses that were 25% stiffer than the control group. The volume of new mineralized bone tissue was over 25% greater in TB4 treated mice than controls as well. Study researchers concluded that this provided strong evidence of its future therapeutic potential in treating broken bones, noting the “enhanced biomechanical properties of fractures” in those receiving Tbeta4 administration. Such findings further demonstrate the exceptional healing potential of this peptide.

TB 500 Hair Growth Via Stem Cell Activation

Also exciting is the discovery in clinical study that TB 500 and hair growth may be linked. Specifically, Thymosin Beta 4 appears to stimulate hair growth through the migration and differentiation of hair follicle stem cells. Another study found that the growth rate itself of hair was accelerated by TB4 via the stimulation of stem cell migration to the base of the hair follicle. It was also found to facilitate hair growth through influence on stem cell differentiation and “extracellular matrix remodeling.”

Thymosin Beta 4 and Inflammation Reduction

Thymosin Beta 4 exhibits potent anti-inflammatory properties. A 1999 study found that TB4 sulfoxide was produced following glucocorticoid exposure by monocytes. The TB4 was found to act as a signal to stop inflammation. This garnered interest for future applications of anti-inflammation therapy without the use of corticosteroids, something the researchers termed an “exciting prospect.” Clearly, TB 500's numerous and varied healing and recuperative mechanisms make it a quite an extraordinary peptide.