Truly a healing powerhouse, BPC-157 has been observed to exert a myriad of beneficial effects on damaged tissue, aiding recuperation and enhancing recovery of many different types of wounds and injuries.
In the following, we examine a number of important studies that shed light on the peptide's healing effects and mechanisms of action.
Tendon Tissue Repair with BPC-157
Without a doubt, one of the most promising and exciting observed benefits of BPC-157 is its positive effect on connective tissue repair and recovery from injury.
A 2011 study published in the Journal of Applied Physiology illustrated how effective it truly is at enhancing tendon regeneration and wound healing in animals.
In the study, scientists tested the peptide’s effect on transected (cut) Achilles tendons in rat test subjects. Specifically, researchers were looking for the particular mechanisms of action by which it exerted its effects.
Upon the study’s completion, researchers noted a substantially accelerated outgrowth and migration of tendon fibroblasts (tendon tissue cells that produce collagen and other fibers) in vitro.
As the expression and activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and paxillin were observed, and the phosphorylation levels of each were increased in correlation with dosage levels, researchers hypothesized that at least one of BPC-157’s mechanisms of action is mediated by FAK-paxillin pathway activation.
Further, scientists also observed that cells treated with BPC-157 had a significantly higher survival rate under stress than non-treated cells.
In conclusion, researchers saw that BPC157 stimulated faster wound repair by enhancing tendon fibroblast migration and outgrowth AND improved recovery of the injured tendons by increasing cell survival.
BPC-157 Facilitates Tendon to Bone Healing
A similar study focused on BPC-157’s ability to heal tendon to bone injuries; specifically, the reattachment of tendon to the bone.
As this is a devastating injury type almost exclusively suffered by high performing animals, its healing and prevention represents a very exciting prospect among competitive animal trainers.
Published in The Journal of Orthopaedic Research in 2006, the study observed rat test subjects with the Achilles tendon transected from the calcaneal bone.
Following transection, body protection compound was administered once daily until the study’s conclusion at 21 days. Another group received 6alpha-methylprednisolone administration (a corticosteroid) while a third control group received saline for placebo.
Researchers found that BPC-157 substantially improved healing over the other two groups, facilitating functional and biomechanical recovery along with macro- and microscopic and immunohistochemistry enhancements.
Specifically, researchers observed substantial improvements in the Achilles functional index, improved load to failure, stiffness, and elasticity, enhanced organization of collagen fibers, greater amounts of collagen, and superior vascularity over the other groups.
In fact, it was found that while 6alpha-methylprednisolone reliably inhibited recovery of the wounded area, BPC-157 was able to significantly reduce those negative effects.
Clearly, these are extremely promising findings in the realm of competition-induced musculoskeletal injuries commonly suffered by performance animals.
Repairing Stomach Lesions Caused by NSAIDs and Adjuvant Arthritis
From its initial discovery, BPC-157’s protective and wound healing effects have been well noted. As its natural counterpart, body protection compound, is found in gastric juice, the peptide was observed early on to have an extremely powerful beneficial impact on the repair and prevention of lesions in the gastrointestinal system and liver.
What’s more, it was also found to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic (pain-relieving) activity as well.
With this in mind, a clinical study was undertaken to research its effects on chronic inflammation lesions caused by adjuvant (induced) arthritis as well as gastrointestinal lesions caused by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in rat test subjects.
In the part of the study directed at studying its effects on adjuvant arthritis, BPC-157 was administered two distinct ways in separate rodent subject groups: either as a single administration or as a once daily protocol for 14 days, 30 days, and one year.
Remarkably, even in the group receiving merely one administration, researchers observed a substantial reduction in the development of lesions. Moreover, the longer the therapy was extended, the greater reduction and healing of lesions was observed, with results becoming quite clear at around two weeks into therapy and remaining apparent a full year afterward.
Further, researchers observed BPC-157 to have a similarly beneficial effect on severe stomach and intestinal lesions caused by NSAIDs such as aspirin and indomethacin.
It was concluded that the peptide consistently stimulated the healing and reduction of these lesions, supporting the findings indicating body protection compound as having a highly protective effect on gastrointestinal mucosa as well as a distinct anti-inflammatory benefit.
Neuroprotection and Central Nervous System Healing
A recent 2016 study published in Current Neuropharmacology serves to illustrate how remarkably potent and far reaching BPC-157’s healing effects truly are.
Recognizing that the brain-gut axis involves integral peptidergic growth factors with powerful ulcer healing properties, researchers sought to ascertain whether such a peptide, specifically BPC-157, could positively (albeit indirectly) affect disorders of the central nervous system. (Likewise, at the time, body protection compound was involved in a clinical trial for examination as a possible treatment for multiple sclerosis.)
The study focused on reviewing findings from past clinical study and research on the peptide. Upon the study’s conclusion, researchers compiled a lengthy list of beneficial effects that is truly quite staggering.
Further, they identified a variety of likely action mechanisms by which it exerts its positive effects. These include upregulation of the growth factor Early Growth Response Protein 1 (EGR-1) and NAB2 (NGFI-A Binding Protein 2), as well as stimulation of the FAK-paxillin and JAK-2 pathways.
Noted was BPC-157’s successful usage in therapy for lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, periodontitis, liver, and pancreas. Its role as a novel mediator of Robert’s cytoprotection (protection of cells against harmful agents) was also recognized, as was its role in protecting the integrity of gastrointestinal mucosa.
Further, researchers noted BPC-157’s role in mitigating injury following non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug or insulin overdose along with the liver, vascular, and gastrointestinal damage that can often result.
As for the main purpose of the study, determining whether the peptide may beneficially impact central nervous system disorders, findings were highly positive.
Researchers noted that both the serotonergic and the dopaminergic systems were mediated by body protection compound, enabling the peptide to positively impact distinctive disturbances in behavior resulting from damaged or overstimulated neurotransmitter systems.
Moreover, BPC-157 was noted to have substantial neuroprotective effects, protecting somatosensory neurons as well as stimulating the regeneration of peripheral nerves after their transection.
Its beneficial effects in the central nervous system further extended to mitigating and reversing damage following a traumatic brain injury suffered by animal test subjects.
What’s more, BPC-157 was even observed to save tail function in rat test subjects with tail paralysis due to a compressed spinal cord and accompanying axonal and neuronal necrosis.
Remarkably, these findings are all in addition to body protection compound’s well-documented beneficial effect on the repair and recovery of damaged musculoskeletal and joint tissue.
Recuperative Impact on Inflammatory Bowel Disease and GI Injury
As BPC-157 is derived from body protection compound, a healing factor found in gastric juices, the beneficial regenerative effects of the peptide on the gastrointestinal system have been apparent from its initial discovery.
Indeed, clinical trails have shown it to be safe for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease and intestinal anastomosis therapy.
In a 2008 study published in the Journal of Pharmacological Sciences, researchers sought to further test its healing effects in the gastrointestinal system by observing its effect on persistent colocutaneous fistula in rat test subjects.
At the conclusion of the study, researchers found that BPC 157 was able to significantly accelerate the injury’s recovery, and its positive effects remained unaffected by the level of nitric oxide generation, a factor that was observed to negatively impact other therapeutic options.
BPC-157 Aids Recovery of Alcohol and NSAID Induced GI Lesions
A later study conducted in 2012 and published in Frontiers of Gastrointestinal Research further expounded on similar findings, examining BPC-157’s therapeutic viability as a treatment for lesions in the gastrointestinal system in animal test subjects, specifically of the intestines, liver, pancreas, stomach, esophagus, and duodenum.
The study’s findings only further supported those of similar previous research. Researchers noted the peptide’s powerful angiogenic effects along with its protective benefits on endothelial tissue. Moreover, they observed its beneficial effect on dysfunctions of the dopamine and 5-HT system, its free radical hunting properties, and its potent neuroprotective abilities.
Upon the study’s conclusion, findings showed that the peptide successfully healed intestinal anastomosis, gastrocutaneous, duodenocutaneous, and colocutaneous fistulas in rat test subjects.
Moreover, their findings indicated that body protection compound was even able to stimulate full healing when researchers waited an entire month after the wound was initially suffered to begin treatment.
Notably, researchers also found that the peptide was particularly effective in stimulating the repair and recovery of lesions caused by both acute and chronic alcohol administration in animal subjects as well as lesions caused by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
Additionally, it had a beneficial effect on esophagitis and dysfunction of the esophagus in rat subjects, mitigating severity and completely restoring esophageal function.
On a further interesting note, an increase in villus muscle tissue thickness was observed when using BPC-157 to treat short-bowel syndrome. Although it is unclear from this study whether the peptide could have a similar thickening effect on muscle tissue in a performance enhancing capacity, it does suggest an interesting avenue for future research.
Regeneration and Enhanced Recovery of Surgical Wounds
A 2007 study published in Surgery Today delved further into the pure wound-repairing properties of BPC-157, examining its effects on healing intestinal anastomosis dehiscence (rupturing) in rats. This type of wound is particularly severe and is the most common cause of post-operative morbidity and mortality in this type of procedure.
Noting that the peptide has shown no evidence of toxicity or ability to achieve a lethal dose, researchers sought to observe its effect on healing ileoileal anastomosis in the rodent test subjects.
Incredibly, body protection compound was found at the study’s conclusion to improve every single aspect of the wound’s healing and repair.
Its performance assessed macroscopically, histologically, and biomechanically, the peptide was found to substantially reduce swelling and decrease necrosis and the number of granulocytes (a type of white blood cell) around the wound. Researchers observed enhanced epithelization (wound healing) stimulated by increased granulation tissue, reticulin, and collagen formation, findings that further supported previously hypothesized mechanisms of action.
The researchers concluded that BPC-157 had a decisively beneficial effect on the repair and healing of the rat subjects’ surgical wounds.